a mountainous landlocked communist state in southeastern Asia. There were nearly 500,000, 4) Explain why the war in Vietnam became increasingly unpopular in America. Us senator, McCarthy popularized the term "Domino Theory" which stated that if Vietnam fall to communism, other neighboring countries in the Indochina peninsula, for example, Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia would also fall to communism, like a row of dominoes. This helped to win the majority in 41 of the lower 48 states. tayscon. counterattack by the Vietcong and Viet Minh lead to a decrease in support for the Vietnam war. [8]. a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. He was the commander of the allied forces in Europe, the army chief-of-staff after the war, and the director of NATO for two years. As public support decreased, opposition grew. [10], Media coverage was a significant factor in causing America to withdraw from Vietnam. Signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. He played a crucial role in all of the major foreign policy and defense decisions of the Kennedy and part of the Johnson administration. Answering press questions after addressing a Howard University audience on 2 March 1965, King asserted that the war in Vietnam was “accomplishing nothing” and called for a negotiated settlement (Schuette, “King Preaches on Non-Violence”). It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. Therefore, many Americans at home started turning against the war. Hence, the Vietcongs were an effective fighting force because their guerrilla tactics were appropriate in the environment. The circumstances of Johnson’s ascendance to the Oval Office left him little choice but to implement several unrealized Kennedy initiatives, particularly in the fields of economic policy and civil rights. Notably, the My Lai Massacre of 1968 killed approximately 500 innocent South Vietnamese civilians. 11)The most important reason for America's withdrawal from Vietnam was military failure. On January 10, 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson asks Congress for more money to support the Vietnam War.Lyndon’s War, a war Johnson … an American adviser, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. Moreover, the Vietcong used the Ho Chi Minh trails to supply food and equipments. Mobile. ... Quizlet Live. One reason why the USA became increasingly involved in Vietnam up to and including 1965 was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964. President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. Help Center. During the third and fourth years of the conflict public opinion on this question was divided, while in the war’s first two years clear majorities backed the decision to use force in Iraq. This party was developed out of a nationalist movement in Indochina that was against France's colonization of the area, organization whose goal was to win Vietnam's independence from foreign rule. Vietnam War was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from November 1, , to April 30, 1975 when Saigon fell. During the Vietnam War, journalists _____. button; elected to two consecutive terms in 1952 and 1956. The Vietnam era was marked by protests, not just about war, but also for social change. he also created a department of housing and urban development. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. A CIA operative working in Saigon, was installed as an advisor to Diem. 2. … Therefore, the war became increasingly unpopular as 71 % of American citizens at home thought the war was a mistake and 58% thought it was immoral. The Tet Offensive of 1968 was launched by the Vietcongs and attacked major towns in South Vietnamese towns and American bases. It looks like your browser needs an update. End result was division of Vietnam at Geneva Conference. The most significant proceedings were Fulbright's Foreign Relations Committee hearings in February 1966. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned. The Second Indochina War, 1954-1975, grew out of the long conflict between France and Vietnam. In 1965, the US enforced carpet bombing (Operation Rolling Thunder), however this had limited success as the Vietcongs hid and "melted away" to the intricate jungle tunnels (Ho Chi Minh Trails). The USS Maddox claimed that the North Vietnamese (Viet Cong) attacked the US boats. eroded. A bid is a fee writers offer to clients for each particular order. An Exam 2: social psych-Chapter 5. Therefore, the Americans could not defeat the Vietcongs. Modern Republicanism---didn't undo the New Deal of the Democrats. Ruler who was unable to exercise any of his powers without the support of French regime. Many Americans believed that it was the US's responsibility to contain communism through the policy Truman Doctrine of 1947. I fear that the war in Iraq will suffer a similar fate. Oh no! A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Fully 64 percent believed that America was right to send troops to Vietnam and only 21 percent disagreed. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional. Many american wanted the money to spent in home instead, and the high US casualties made the war highly unpopular. This opposition would gradually grow into a full-blown counter-culture movement and help build larger opposition to the conflict. Diagrams. French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. 1)What involvement did America have in Vietnam between 1954 and 1962? Dwight displayed "grandfatherly good will". President Bill Clinton's visit to Vietnam this week opens a new chapter in relations between the United States and Vietnam, though Americans still find it hard to forget the memories of a war that claimed the lives of more than 50,000 American men and women. By 1971, 71 % thought the war was a mistake and 58% believed the war was immoral. There were images of children being hit by bombs and deadly defoliants such as Napalm. 2)Explain why the Communists used guerrilla tactics in the Vietnam War. Moreover, the US conventional tactics were inappropriate against the guerrilla tactics of the Vietcongs. Public opinion polls are never perfect, but they provide a useful tool for measuring the public’s view of the Vietnam War. [8]. In the end, they had to withdrawn from the Vietnam war. President during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. They did, 3)The main reason for American withdrawal from Vietnam was the Tet Offensive of, The cost of war was highlighted by 'The Tet Offensive. The Vietnam War was the first war ever published and the image of innocent children being injured and killed appalled the American audience back at home. The Vietnam War is a ten-part, 18-hour documentary film series directed by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick. Younger Americans organized a variety of opposition efforts to protest the war. The US were unfamiliar with the environment in Vietnam, therefore they could not win against the Vietcongs. 14)"Media coverage was more important than protest movements in causing America to withdraw from Vietnam". Known for role in involving U.S. in Vietnam War. Eisenhower reigned over a period of unstable peace and prosperity. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet Uinon to withdraw their missiles. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other capitalist nations (Wikipedia). Leader of South Vietnam, 1954-1963; supported by United States, but not by Vietnamese Buddhist majority; assassinated in 1963. Therefore, many Americans at home started turning against the war. Communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. when elected President, he was the most popular American; "I like Ike!" calls for withdrawal reached a fever pitch by 1970, and at that point, the war was lost. Notably, the My Lai Massacre of 1968 killed approximately 500 innocent South Vietnamese civilians. However, after more than 20 years involvement, they left Vietnam with the fall of their ally into the Communist hands, some 58,000 Americans killed and a deeply divided society. We were winning in Vietnam, but the media turned the public against the war. For instance, they used booby traps to ambush the American troops. By the fact that they merged into the background they were difficult to find. On March 31, faced with a mounting revolt against his war polices, Johnson announced new restrictions on U.S. bombing of North Vietnam—and, most … Oh no! Moreover, the cost of the war was always unjustifiable by the American public, the US were spending around $20 and $30 billion on the war. was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War. but they were not making much progress,as demonstrated by the Tet Offensive of 1968. Others doubted Westmoreland’s ability to command, leading to his replacement in June 1968, by General Creighton Abrams. Became premier of independent vietnam: ngo din diem outmaneuvered bao dai. A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counter culture of the 1960's. In 1965, the US enforced mass carpet- bombing, most notably known as "Operation Rolling Thunder", however it was a failure because the Vietcongs would simply hid underneath the intricate juggle paths of the Ho Chi Minh Trails. Leader was Ho Chi Minh. Nixon's invasion of Cambodia. Quizlet Learn. It took more than three years before a majority of Americans said it was a mistake to send troops to Vietnam, a state of affairs reached within a year and three months of the inception of the Iraq war. Sign up. The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese. ... effort to garner public support by President Nixon. The Vietnam war was the first ever televised war with no censorship and it highlight the harsh reality of war to the American public at home. The Vietnam War was also the first one in which the United States suffered a clear defeat. In July 1954, after one hundred years of colonial rule, a defeated France was forced to leave Vietnam. In 1968,Nixon was elected by the American public because he promised that he would end the war in Vietnam. One factor that influenced the failure of the United States in Vietnam was lack of public support. 7)Explain why the methods used by the Americans to try to defeat the Vietcong were unsuccessful. 13)Explain why the Vietcong was an effective fighting force. Secretary of State, supported realpolitik, appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary advisor, engaged shuttle diplomacy. Vietnamese diplomat who negotiated with Henry Kissinger to end the war in Vietnam (1911-1990), a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia, a Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991. 12)What military tactics did the Americans use in the Vietnam war? However, after most of Eastern Europe including countries such as Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Albania in 1947 and China in 1949 fell to communism. The failure of US military tactic was a significant factor for America's withdrawal from Vietnam because the US soldiers were demoralised to fight in the war. along with journalist, this Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, turned against the war and in January 1966 began to stage highly publicized and occasionally televised congressional hearings to air criticisms of it. The term referred to Americans who did not participate in anti-war demonstrations and who did not get involved in the public debate about the Vietnam War. There were image of innocent children being hit,injured and killed by US sustained bombing "Operation rolling thunder in 1965" and "Operation rolling phoenix in 1968", defoliants such as napalms. control " Zippo Mission", a zone from which military forces or operations or installations are prohibited, a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas, a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea. There were image of innocent children being hit,injured and killed by US sustained bombing "Operation rolling thunder in 1965" and "Operation rolling phoenix in 1968", defoliants such as napalms. The polls fluctuated over the next year but showe… It looks like your browser needs an update. 31 terms. COINTELPRO (syllabic abbreviation derived from COunter INTELligence PROgram) (1956–unknown) is a series of covert and illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting American political organizations. (operation rolling phoenix). 1946-1954. was fought in French Indochina between French and Vietnamese. A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War. The Ho Chi Minh-led Communist government of North Vietnam which was created after the 1954 Geneva Conference divided the country at the 17th parallel. 10)Explain why the USA became involved in Vietnam up to and including 1965. Consequently, the US Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which enabled the US to take any necessary measure to defend South Vietnam, and it led to the US committed to the war in Vietnam. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid. Vietnamese vs. Vietnamese A North Vietnamese soldier laments how the war pitted Vietnamese against each other. 8)The following were equally important reasons for America withdrawing from Vietnam: The public opinion in America was a significant reason for America withdrawing from Vietnam. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. Experts leave their bids under the posted order, waiting for a client to settle on which writer, among those who left Vietnam War Essay Quizlet their bids, they want to choose. Called "The Republican's Choice" along with his vice president Richard Nixon. One key reason why US involvement in Vietnam increased between 1954- 1964 was containment from communism and the domino theory. However, the notion that the war initially was prosecuted by the government against the wishes of the American people is false. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem. The longer the Vietnam War went on, the less popular it became. The Vietcong was an effective fighting force because they used cheap and effective tactics to fight against the American troops. The US troops lived in constant fear of them, and their morale were lowered. The bidding system is developed based on what is used in auctions, where a bid is the price participants offer for a good. Former dean of faculty at Harvard. Chapter 21: The Vietnam War Quiz Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, 1968 In late January, 1968, during the lunar new year (or “Tet”) holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South Vietnam.The U.S. and South Vietnamese militaries sustained heavy losses before finally repelling the communist assault. Initially, the Vietnam War created a divide in American public opinion. The Things They Carried is a collection of twenty-two stories, or chapters. The Americans used superior technologies for instance firepower and artilleries. Nixon gave a speech in 1969 that urged members of the “silent majority” to express their support for him. Nixon was elected by the American public because he promised that he would end the war in Vietnam. Vietnam War was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from November 1, , to April 30, 1975 when Saigon fell. In their living rooms watching the evening news, Americans regularly saw film of airplanes flying, often dropping bombs, and troops on patrol, sometimes in combat. National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. The Vietnam was the first ever televised war with no censorship and it highlight the harsh reality of war to the American public at home. Men notably Mohammed Ali and Martin Luther King dodged "drafting" and in 1970, 4 students from Kent University were shot down for holding a demonstration against the war. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Average REF: 792 OBJ: 24.1.1 STA: 11.9.3.g TOP: Vietnam War NOT: 24.1.1—Learn about the events that led to the war between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. media coverage is more significant factor in causing Americans to withdraw from Vietnam. Last month, I did a series of posts commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the arrival of U.S. combat troops in Vietnam on March 8, 1965. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Public support began to erode as Americans started to question the handling of the conflict. The US used bombing campaigns (operation Rolling Thunder in 1965 in 1968 the US sustained the bombing campaigns. [4]. [6]. In the My Lai Massacres of 1968, American troops injured and killed approximately 500 innocent South Vietnamese civilians. The Vietcongs used cheap and effective booby traps to ambush the US troops, consequently the US troops lived in constant fear with them and this lowered their moral. The Americans' military tactics were unsuccessful to defeat the Vietcong because their conventional tactics were inappropriate against the guerrilla tactics of the Vietcongs. This gave the president authority to take "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. The United States then helped Diem organize the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) to control his new state. A lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc. The United States had entered the conflict in Vietnam as a world’s superpower, a victor of the World War II against the Axis powers, with a “moral” cause of defending the world freedom and democracy against the Communists. The American public put pressured Nixon to pass the policy "Vietnamisation". The Vietnam War was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Southeast Asia Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia that began in 1959 and ended in April 1975. Vietnam: The Television War The Vietnam war was the first to be televised. These included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, most controversially, the Vietnam War. There were image of innocent children being hit,injured and killed by US sustained bombing "Operation rolling thunder in 1965" and "Operation rolling phoenix in 1968", defoliants such as napalms. These numbers did not change dramatically until May 1966, when the percentage of Americans who saw the Vietnam War as “a mistake” jumped ten points, likely due to increasing casualties. [10]. The American public's support of the Vietnam War decreased as the war continued on. The night before the 1952 presidential elections, he declared that he would personally go to Korea and end the war. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers. '63 Secretary of Defense, advised Johnson that he would have to increase the US military commitment to South Vietnam to prevent a communist victory, 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment, The name of Ngo Dinh Nhu's secret political organization. was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson from 1961 through 1966. One of the key reason why the war in Vietnam became increasingly unpopular in America was the US atrocities televised on American TV. The Gallup News Service began asking the American public whether it was a "mistake to send troops to Vietnam" in August 1965. The Vietnam war was the first ever televised war with no censorship and it highlight the harsh reality of war to the American public at home. was one of Kennedy's "wise men". Fifteen months into Lyndon Johnson's presidency, the country still knew little about the Vietnam War. Additionally, the Vietcongs also hid in an intricate jungle path that extend from North to South Vietnam and back again(The Ho Chi Minh Trail) Therefore the US troops could not bomb them with their superior firepower. Undergrad at Yale. An FBI program begun in 1956 and continued until 1971 that sought to expose, disrupt, and discredit groups considered to be radical political organizations: Targeted antiwar groups during the Vietnam War. As a result, US involvement in Vietnam increased to contain the threat of communism. In 1965, Americans were largely supportive. The decrease in support for the decision to go to war has occurred despite a dramatically improved perception of how the effort in Iraq is going. offensive operation to find and destroy enemy forces rather than establish permanent gov. 1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerrilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it un-winnable. made by Ho Chi Minh. 1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war. By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … Honor Code. Learn about the war that enmeshed the United States in a battle against communism in Southeast Asia for more than twenty years. ... OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Four years after President John F. Kennedy sent the first American troops into Vietnam, Martin Luther King issued his first public statement on the war. The political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. a lieutenant who's unit began shooting and killing unarmed civilians at My Lai. Flashcards. Lt. Calley later maintained that he was following orders, but many of the soldiers present did not participate in the massacre. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy families. [6]. From 1964 he was Chairman of the 303 Committee, responsible for coordinating government covert operations. As the war in Vietnam progressed, however, and the military situation deteriorated, a few Democrats used the power of congressional investigation to force the administration into a contentious public debate. 5) Explain why US involvement in Vietnam increased between 1954-1964. Americans have become negative about the war in Iraq more quickly than they did for the Vietnam War. Hi Chi Minh's most trusted lieutenant, he led the Viet Minh in a victory over the French that concluded with the battle at Dien Bien Phu. At the center of these events stands President Lyndon B. Johnson, who inherited the White House following the November 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy. In the last half of the year the public preference for how the war should be conducted also began to shift. How did the US' foreign policy relate to an increased presence in Vietnam? The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. We won it militarily, but we lost support of the war. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam. Johnson ordered the U.S. Air Force & U.S. Navy to begin an intense series of air strikes. But LBJ was equally committed to winning the fight against the Communist insurgency in Vietnam—a fight that Kennedy ha… The notion that the vast majority of American youths took to the streets to end the Vietnam War is equally false. While the Tet Offensive proved to be a military victory for the US and ARVN, it was a political and media disaster. ". [6]. reignited student protests in 1970. •Until 1954 the USA supported the French against the Vietminh with money and. Some people argue that television coverage of the Vietnam War American public support for the war. other events, which were during his terms was the building of theBerlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war. Help. In 1967, at the request of U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, a team of analysts working for the Department of Defense prepared a highly classified study of the U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from the end of World War II until the present day.The official title of the study was the “Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force,” though it would later become famous as the Pentagon P… For each particular order 1964 was containment from communism and the domino theory, engaged shuttle.... 58 % believed the war continued on the end, they used cheap and effective tactics to fight against guerrilla... And medicaid on American TV and destroy enemy forces rather than establish permanent gov 500 innocent Vietnamese... The Massacre this helped to win the majority in 41 of the Relations between Russia and the powers. The North Vietnamese ( Viet Cong ) attacked the US conventional tactics were inappropriate against the.. 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