Home » Blog Posts » Military » Spanish Galleon: 10 Things You Should Know. In this case, the page was exclusively at the service of his protector, unlike “ship’s pages” that were at the service of the entire crew. Many were orphans or were poor, taken from the streets of Seville, Mexico and Manila. He would receive rations but no pay. The Phoenicians were apparently the first to introduce the bireme (about 700 bc), which had two banks of oars staggered on either side 1 Captain 2. In the Mediterranean, oared galleys were common as fighting ships, and by the early 16thcentury these carried cannons at the front. The boatswain was responsible for ensuring the cargo was stowed well and maintained throughout the voyage, maintaining all mechanisms of the ship and ordering repairs. Essentially, this is a 500 ton galleon, with length overall reaching 160 ft. and beam 32 ft. Four masts hold 6 sails which measure almost 11,000 square foot. Simply put, most of the ships, including the galleon varieties, were undermanned during their cargo-carrying voyages across the Atlantic. Average speed is 7 knots. On the westward voyage, a Maestre de Plata or Master of the Silver was in sole custody of the chests of silver containing two or three million pesos destined for the shippers in Manila. “The arrival of the Spanish galleons in Manila from the Pacific Ocean and their departure along the Kuroshio stream (16th and 17th centuries),” in Journal of Geographical Research. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents.
A galleon also had a very short keel when compared to the length of the hull. To that end, the early galleons, while refined in their design, tended to serve as armed platforms that could provide supporting fire and resultant smoke – the latter being used for the masked maneuvers while boarding enemy ships. Look at the cannons on one side of every ship, slop has 1, brig has 2, galleon has 4. To that end, one hypothesis put forth in the academic circles relates to how the galleon was based on the design of caravels, possibly because of its ‘sleeker’ form-factor. In later years, due to serious efforts to increase the proportion of Spaniards in these positions, Andalusian and Basque gunners increased significantly. By the 1540s, such Spanish galleons were built as dedicated warships (with some cargo carrying capacity) that were typically smaller than naos. The adoption of such tactics translated to ships being used as floating artillery platforms, thereby resulting in the design of heavier vessels with more number of guns – better known as the ‘ship of the line’. His job was to see to it that the ship had all the necessary resources, licensing and permits to carry out its mission. But such ratios were only devised for the mariners (or crew members) of the vessel. Thus in the following decades, the galleon design and armaments went through numerous changes that rather propelled its status as a dedicated warship rather than an armed carrier. With multiple sails and complex rigging, it took a minimum crew of 80 to operate proficiently. Accessed 3 March 2015. With the size of the ship, the number of crew members on board the ship also varied. By this time, the caravel was the highly-maneuverable sailing ship used for exploration, while larger carrack (or the Mediterranean equivalent – the nao, with slightly different features), based on the design of cogs, appeared as the dominant warship and merchant’s vessel for many a European navy. Sea of Thieves Dev Explains Why the Maximum Crew Size Is 4 Players ... One player could now sail a four-person galleon alone, using the game's "Make Friends" emote to manually gather a crew… A more accurate sloop would be the length of the galleon and could be sailed by 8-15 but would need a crew of 30 or more to effectively fight her. And while during the early half of the 16th century, such escorting duties were carried out by naos, the further increase in averia (due to risks of foreign attack on the flotas), along with the advent of more evolved shipbuilding techniques, allowed the galleons to take center stage in such Spanish flotas. In that regard, while earlier galleons and other warships were the products of ill-conceived ‘agreements’ that forced shipbuilders to work within the confines of royal shipyards, by the early 17th century, the crown offered incentives to private contractors and financiers to build their warships from the ground up. Because of the experience required for this position, the average age of pilots was over 40 years. “What Really Made the World go Around? As we mentioned before in the article, the placement and fixing of armaments atop naval crafts were the responsibilities of the Spanish royal authorities, and, this, in turn, resulted in the valid documentation of the types of weapon systems, artillery, and ordnance used by the galleon. Such alterations rather reflected on many of the naval battles and encounters till the late 1630s – with the Spanish galleons showcasing their mettle (often buoyed by resourceful commanders) in numerous engagements both in the Americas and European waters. Featured Image Source: Painting by Roland Davies (1stDibs), Book Reference: Spanish Galleon 1530-1690 (By Angus Konstam), Online Sources: The Mariner’s Museum / Pirate Glossary / Encyclopedia.com. Few galleons sank from enemy attacks, though. Quezon City: In press. However, it can hold 10 more cargo than a frigate, which will likely be needed for food to make up for the speed while traveling. The carpenter was indispensable on a ship built mainly of wood. Since medieval culture was very diverse, so were shipbuilding styles. By Chris Caswell. However, this seemingly ambitious phase of shipbuilding was only transitory – since the Spanish crown decided to ‘refocus’ on the commercial potential of the galleon. What kinds of people made up these galleon crews? They trade power and durability for maneuverability and simplicity. Over time, their versatility also translated into a commercial advantage, with the some of the galleons being converted into armed coin-carrying ships of the Spanish crown – as mentioned earlier in the article (see the Royal Galleon entry). Such escorting galleons, called the Armada de la Guardia, were part of the Armada del Mar Oceano (Atlantic Fleet) from the 1580s, and the latter organization ultimately morphed into a permanent navy in the 17th century. 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The Spanish Governor of the Mariana Islands and the Saga of the Palacio. Point Cost: 230 VP 1. To that end, records of the Spanish navy from the early 17th century show that each galleon had an average of 90 to 100 crew members, excluding the soldiers. So after the delivery of the galleon, it was the responsibility of the crown to outfit the vessel with various components and armaments, ranging from navigational instruments, ordinance, ship boats to even the decoration of the craft (usually comprising religiously-inspired figures). Levesque, Rodrique, Compiler, Editor and Translator. A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft, and low freeboard (clearance between sea and railing). With that said, The Galleon was an extremely sleek ship and faster than many of her predecessors. Ship Types [edit | edit source] Sloop [edit | edit source] The captain was the supreme commander in this case. True Speed Value: 4.166667 Manoeuvrability: Poor 1. It was not uncommon for a ship to arrive in Manila from Acapulco with only a fraction of their crew still alive. They were also charged with night watches, and when the night was over, to chant “Buenos Dias” in the morning. In essence, it can be surmised that the galleon design was inspired by the combination of both the maneuverability of caravels and the hefty nature of carracks, bolstered by the millennia-old tradition of shipbuilding along the Mediterranean coast. Heesen Yachts: Building a Legacy. Galley, large seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars. Careri, Dr. John Francis Gemelli. To that end, it should be noted that the Spanish Armada consisted of different kinds of vessels and warships, ranging from the naos, galleasses to smaller crafts. Galleons were q… So without further ado, let us take a gander at ten things you should know about the history and evolution of the galleon – the exemplary warship of the 16th-17th century. Furthermore, the very same period might have corresponded to a crisis in the shipbuilding sector, especially in northern Spain. The reduction in their war-capability possibly also reflects how the Spaniards faced little to no opposition on their maritime trade routes, especially during the period between the 1590s till 1620s. Inspectors, purveyors, accountants and treasurers – they guarded and administered the money. As for the guns on board, many of the older wrought iron specimens were already replaced by bronze ordnance by 1588 AD. Such arrangements were complemented by strict regulations that dictated the specified construction and adjustment of almost every section of the ship. A good carpenter had to know how to cap a breach in the hull, make a pulley, a cabin or a launch. They had to know how to make gunpowder, fill grenades, select the type of projectiles to use against an enemy ship, maneuver, load and fire the cannon, maintain it and keep it steady aboard the moving ship. Typically the carpenter was the oldest crewmember on the ship. Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human effort was always the primary method of propulsion. The Galleon was the ship of the line for its day. They set the course for the ship by watching the trim of the sails and the compass while implementing the orders of the pilot. In short, if you were prone to sea sickness, you didn't want to be on a Galleon. Many times individuals were sentenced to serve as crew on royal ships. She carried 77 crewmen, 18 gunners, transported 317 soldiers and 26 families, as well as provisions and cargo. The vision here is that the competition here will be fairer for everyone. Schurz, William Lytle. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. Just to provide an example, gold in itself was a rare metal in contemporary Europe, with scholarly estimates suggesting a measly figure of 88 tons for the entire store of gold in 15th century Europe (that could be easily made into a small 6x6x6 ft cube). 47:17-38. Secondly, we decided to enforce Crew Sizes in The Arena to ensure that the number of players is evenly matched. 2007. 1732. In essence, the galleons, especially the larger specimens, were perceived as floating fortresses (albeit with finer design considerations when compared to carracks) that could accommodate its fair share of defenders – in the form of well-trained musketeers who could perform boarding actions. Intelligent and skilled sailors could advance to the position of gunner or sea officer and in some cases, if they had the means and wherewithal to stop work and attend classes in Seville, they could eventually advance to the position of pilot. The steward was in charge of the food stores and for dispensing rations to the crew. To that end, in the following years, one of the widespread tactics adopted by many contemporary European navies related to the ‘line of the battle’ – basically entailing the formation of a line by the ships end to end, which allowed them to collectively fire their cannon volleys from the broadsides without any danger of friendly-fire. Added to the crew number were the other men on board, including the soldiers (who were often carried in ratios of one soldier per four toneladas in the 1630s), officers, and assorted passengers. Similarly, the smaller 500-toneladas varieties carried 24 guns, while the even tinier 300-toneladas galleons carried around 20 guns. Sailors handled the helm (a difficult task before the wheel was invented). Those with family ties to a high-ranking officer or who were able to forge a friendship with a crew member had the best protection. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. Thus the bulky nature of the sterncastle or alcazar, while sometimes having a detrimental effect on the maneuvering of the ship itself, also symbolized the imposing stature of the galleon. 2 Engineers 6. Spain’s exploits in the Americas converted to massive economic dividends. Viking style: The wiki article is pretty good and has an excellent list of external links for the layman. McCarthy, William J. Smaller galleons functioned with a crew of 50, while the crew of the larger galleons could number more than 400. The boatswain mate was also in charge of disciplining apprentices and pages. Blair, Emma Helen and James Alexander (eds.). In the 1520s, the Portuguese used patrol vessels in the Indian Ocean known as galleones, while by the 1530s, the French referred to the Spanish warships as a galeons. Among these, the pedreros – used as close-range anti-personnel weapons, and bombardettas – with their lower ranges when compared to bronze guns, were increasingly considered as outdated by the 17th century. The cooper repaired containers, especially the barrels that carried water, wine and other provisions. Simply put, while the earlier carracks and naos were used as ‘multirole’ cumbersome warships and merchant vessels, the galleon was possibly developed as a specialized marine craft with a keel-up design dedicated primarily to naval battles and encounters (but modified over time with cargo-carrying capacity – discussed later in the article). One such case was the Frenchman, Antoine Limarie Boucourt who was the pilot on the Santissima Trinidad in 1755. He was also charged with the maintenance of the bilge pumps. But after the momentous defeat of the Armada, there was an overhaul of the management of the galleon guns. Vol. This is why we are ensuring that you need a minimum of three players on a Galleon and two on a Sloop. Added to this revolting scope was the danger of other vermin, including cockroaches, fleas, and lice. 1 Spotter 4. Now judging by this nomenclature, it becomes somewhat evident that the Spanish viewed their galleon ships as naval extensions of actual fortresses on lands. A new Ship is automatically spawned when a player or team of players f… Due to their smaller size, Sloops are easier to repair than the larger Galleons. 1959. Because of their age (older than the pages and younger than the sailors), the apprentices many times were the “onboard whipping boys” and provided an outlet for the frustration of the crew. To that end, records of the Spanish navy from the early 17th century show that each galleon had an average of 90 to 100 crew members, excluding the soldiers. Consequently, many of these treasure-carrying Royal Galleons were designed to be smaller and less-armed than their continental cousins. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario(1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. Apprentices were sailors in training. Less than a third of the crew was Spanish and they usually held key positions onboard the galleon. Core Strength: 550 HP Firepower: Very Good (10 Banks) 2 Laser Gatling Guns (non-replaceable) 6 Light LaserBall Cannons (non-replaceable) 6 … (2004), the Frigate is the name used to refer both to the specific Ship Type called "Frigate", and the entire family of ships known as Frigates.The "Frigate" is the Smallest member of its class, and is also the most common. Gunners were expert sailors that had mastered the use of the cannon. Also, the 1588 campaign was a shock defeat for the Spanish Armada, and the result may have ushered in changes in the Spanish navy. On the other hand, the versos, with their swivel-mount and faster breech-loading mechanisms, were effective and flexible for both solid-shot and grapeshot. It should be noted that Guam at the time was considered to part of the Philippine Islands and it is likely that someone from Guam served onboard one of the ships used in the Manila Galleon trade. June 18, 2009. On the slightly brighter side, especially in Spanish circumstances, their predominantly Mediterranean diet did guard against the onset of scurvy, which was called the ‘Dutch Disease’. If we go by the aforementioned ratio-based formula, the very same vessel would have additionally carried around 120-125 soldiers onboard. How many masts does the ship have? The predicament was even exacerbated by the rats polluting the clean food and water sources and even damaging the sails. No. She served as a hospital ship after 1791, and was finally broken up in 1813. Upon their return and the completion of their expedition they were unemployed. The size of a clipper ship varied according to the requirement of the cargo. While it cannot maneuver well like the smaller Sloop, the Galleon is unmatched in firepower and speed. The guns were also supported by larger four-wheeled carriages instead of the feeble two-wheel ones. History of Micronesia, Vol. By 1520s, a solution was hatched in the form of the averia – a special tax levied on goods traded across the Atlantic, and the money, in turn, was used to fund the crafting of warships that were to escort the merchant vessels. Similarly, the smaller forecastle (upper deck forward of the foremast) was simply called the castillo (castle). So by the 1590s, till the mid-17th century, the galleons tended to be even more trimmed, with their capacities averaging around 500 toneladas. One of the team members remembers hearing about some formula that looked at the ratio of cycle time to takt time to come up with the, so-called, optimal crew size. 20: Bibliography of Micronesia, ships through Micronesia, Cumulative Index. Dutton & Co., Inc. Searles, USN Commander P.J. Capacity ranged up to 900 tons or more. The General was the supreme commander of the fleet. Caribbean Tales - Ships - Galleon. Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal Consequently, the galleons were breeding grounds for various diseases, including yellow fever (and its high mortality rate) exported from the Caribbean. 11, Issue 1. Spanish officials in Manila found it increasingly difficult to find men to crew their ships, especially for the long and arduous return voyage to Acapulco. Such massive sizes were complemented by graceful designs, with a sharper stern, sleeker length-to-beam ratio (when compared to bulkier carracks), and more effective hull shape for carrying artillery. The gulf between a crew size of one and two is potentially huge. Lengths of 200 feet (60 metres) became common for such ships, which displaced 1,200 to 2,000 tons and had crews of 600 to 800 men. Unfortunately, in spite of the many modifications (both structural and organizational) made on the Spanish galleon, naval warfare in the decades of the mid 17th century changed significantly in terms of formations and maneuvers. During the time of King Philip II’s reign (1556-98), the Spanish galleon increased in size and capacity. MGTR Personnel : Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade,” in Explorations a graduate student journal of southeast Asian studies. 2002. Smaller galleons functioned with a crew of 50, while the crew of the larger galleons could number more than 400. There is hardly an Indian who has sailed the seas who does not understand the mariner’s compass, and therefore on this [Acapulco] trade-route there are some very skilful and dexterous helmsmen.”. The scope was made more efficient with the correct labeling and storage of the different shots for the various caliber of the guns – which allowed for a streamlined approach during the high-intensity artillery duels. The boatswain was in charge of seeing that the orders of the Master and the Captain were transmitted to, and carried out by the crew—that meant anything to do with steering a course and keeping the cargo in good shape. Crew size depended on the size of the galleon. Galleons guarded the treasure bound for Spain and the king’s coffers. These individuals conceivably could have engaged with the CHamoru people in interactions of trade and cultural exchange under various circumstances. E-journal. Typically 130 feet (40 meters) along the keel and 30 feet (9.1 meters) across the beam, galleons had three full masts and three decks that could hold a maximum of 800 crew and passengers. The Sea of Thieves max crew size has been a point of contention between players and developers since the first beta launched. And by 1588 AD, when the Spanish Armada arguably was at its peak, the crown boasted three humongous 1,000-ton galleons accompanied by eight 800 ton galleons and eight 600 ton galleons. A player's current Ship also acts as their respawn point if they die (unless their Ship sank, in which case they respawn at a random Island). Incredibly enough, the guns, along with the powder and shot, were mostly manufactured by royal foundries and workshops (while in some cases, guns were also imported from abroad) – and as such, the Spanish relied on an ‘economical’ system where guns were specifically furnished for the galleon-type with allocated ammunition that had to be returned to the royal authorities if left unused. In terms of placements, the largest guns were carried as stern chasers, while the others, divided between the two broadsides, were arranged along a long gundeck. http://www.sdmaritime.org. He was the administrator of the ship and had to certify to the owners of the ship, owners of the cargo and the government officials that all contracts and laws were followed and taxes paid. The Galleon is a multi-decked vessel with a large hold. Talking of furnishing, the job of the private contractors ended at the construction of the core ship itself. He accomplished this with a whistle from the poop deck, while his assistant, the boatswain mate, directed the work at prow. As others have stated, the answer depends very much on the specifics of the ship. Sloops are highly maneuverable but only carry two cannons on board. Now while from the mathematical perspective, many of the galleons were possibly undermanned in regards to their weight, the available space for crew members onboard had always been cramped. Mangilao, GU: Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam. The scribe registered the cargo, wrote wills, and recorded judicial proceedings. A good sailor was one that could thread a cable through an anchor ring or deploy a sail in storm conditions. 1 Helmsman 5. One such case was Fernando Antonio Izquierdo, who in 1754 was found guilty of murdering Cayetano Méxica, a Mexican surgeon serving in Anigua, Guam. The master was in charge of the financial and administrative aspects of the voyage. According to historian Angus Konstam, the various sections of the galleon decks were named after castle elements. Other positions affiliated with the galleons were: Constables were tasked with maintaining order on the ships. Sponsored. Thus in the initial phases of galleon development during the 16th century, the onboard artillery only took a secondary role, while boarding actions were still given preference by the Spanish commanders. How many sails does the ship have? In Sid Meier's Pirates! Their disposition is most humble in the presence of a Spaniard, and they show him great respect; but they can teach many of the Spanish mariners who sail these seas.”, “The little I understand about them makes me think that these are people most suited for the sea; and if the ships are manned with crews one third Spaniards and the other two-thirds Indians, the best mariners of these islands can be obtained, and many of them can be employed in our warships. Madrid, Carlos. Small size makes it harder to hit in fights; Cons. In essence, sea crafts were built for specific purposes and their individual designs and schemas reflected such a function-based direction. Furthermore, in times of war, the number of soldiers could actually be increased – thus transforming the galleon into a well-armed transport ship instead of a royal-sanctioned commercial vessel. A Voyage round the World containing the most remarkable things he saw in the Philippine Islands. Suffice it to say, the canones and culebrinas (subdivided into various weights and sizes) were the mainstays of the Spanish galleon; and the capacity of the vessel itself often mirrored the number of guns on board. By the 17th century, Havana became the center of galleon-building in the Americas due to its proximity to high-quality Cuban timber. She served as a hospital ship after 1791, and was finally broken up in 1813. A conventional clipper ship carried around 25-50 sailors on board. Whereas earlier patterns entailed the experienced (but still personal) judgment of the generational shipbuilders, late 16th and early 17th centuries brought forth the ideals of mathematical precision and measurements that dictated the flow of work and design elements of maritime vessels. “The Manila Galleon.” The Manila Galleons and the Forging of the Pacific Rim. The majority would have died from starvation, disease and scurvy. For most ships of the era, much of the wastewater, sea-water, and human excrement were collected in the bilge area of the vessel – which corresponded to the space below the hold. Stats . The only difference is you need a minimum crew size of 3 for Galleons and 2 for Sloops to start the match. King Philip III (who reigned from 1598-1621 AD) aimed to directly control the coin (specie) shipments from the Americas to Spain by stipulating how the cargo should only be transported via his royal galleons. Vol 1-55. Suffice it to say, the sleeker galleon was ironically anachronistic, with the focus of shipbuilders once again shifting to the bigger warships with broadside artillery platforms. The carpenter, caulker and diver made up the repair team of the ship. They handled the rigging and ropes during maneuvers and attended to the sounding line that determined the water’s depth. The Galleon is a sailable ship in Sea of Thieves. The galleons that passed through the Marianas carried scores of crew members in addition to soldiers and colonial or mission helpers on their way to the Marianas and the Philippines. Please let us know via the ‘Contact Us’ link, provided both above the top bar and at the bottom bar of the page. Galleon is the largest of the buildable Ships in ATLAS. However, the galleon also shared some design features with the nao, given its sturdier construction and stronger sailing rig. Upon the flota System that basically entailed convoys of vessels guarded by late. 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