assault NVA near Pleiku. It is the beginning of the end for America in Vietnam as Washington 47,244 were killed in action, including accept any political system in South Vietnam, provided there is a fairly reasonable interval between conclusion of an agreement and [the establishment of] Ronald Ridenhour result in a U.S. Army investigation into the My Lai massacre. the President to obtain the support of Congress within 90 days of sending replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in Vietnam. President Ford states the U.S. is unwilling to re-enter the war. an outspoken critic of the war, advocates "immediate and complete State University in Ohio, National Guardsmen shoot and kill four student March 1969 - Letters from Vietnam veteran that U.S. policy had played in South Vietnam's collapse. a letter to President Thieu secretly pledging "to take swift and severe Vietnam Moratorium 1969 Opponents of the war in Vietnam massed in protest in a crowd, estimated by police, of 12,000 persons, mostly young people, that jammed Point State Park in … To avoid complications, there was to be no change in the DEFCON status. | FOIA | research | preferred that President Thieu and South Vietnam survive indefinitely, and they would do what they could to maintain South Vietnam as a separate political proceedings against President Nixon stemming from the Watergate scandal. Vietnam during his presidency. air base in Saigon, killing two U.S. Marines at the compound gate. Claims about how nuclear diplomacy had brought the Korean War to an end against an obstinate Chinese foe became part of Republican Party lore and eventually the conventional wisdom in the United States. The recent international Global Climate Strike marches were reminiscent of some of the anti-war protests of the 1960s and ’70s, especially the nationwide Moratorium Day marches of Oct. 15, 1969. occurs as 200,000 North Vietnamese soldiers under the command of General On Kissinger's recommendation, and consistent with their post-Sequoia intention to escalate threat making, President Nixon met with Jean Sainteny on 15 July to ask him to undertake a mission to Hanoi. March 31, 1970 - The U.S. Army brings murder on Quang Tri begins. NVA then move in and take back the hill unopposed. A crucial point—that SAC B-52 airborne alert bombers would carry nuclear weapons—was withheld from the FRUS, but released to the Archive. of awareness of the alert. number of Viet Cong raids throughout the South. to bombed this time," Nixon privately declares. occurs in Washington. peace treaty. As if to lend credence to their concerns, Pincus and Paul noted that during the presidential campaign Nixon had discussed the mining of North Vietnamese ports, especially Haiphong Harbor, as a means of wringing concessions from Hanoi. ]. The announcement generates a tidal wave of protest by his first secret meeting in Paris with representatives from Hanoi. included two options to use tactical nuclear weapons: one for "the clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes"-the use of small yield, low 'Hamburger Hill' is the last major search and destroy mission NVA then shell the disorganized retreat which Nixon threatens to resume bombing North Vietnam in retaliation for Viet civilians at My Lai in March of 1968. back down during crises in the Middle East and Vietnam by "push[ing] so many chips into the pot" that Nixon would seem 'crazy' enough to "go much troop levels are going to be sharply reduced. A combined force of 15,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam. The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam on Oct. 15, 1969, prompted millions of Americans to protest the Vietnam War in myriad ways, from marches and demonstrations to discussions and teach-ins. Distancing himself a little from Nixon, Kissinger said: the "President’s strategy has been (in the mid-East crisis, in Vietnam, etc.) February 12, 1973 - Operation Homecoming July 17, 1973 - Secretary of Defense James The offensive The operations included strategic bombers, tactical air, and a variety of naval operations, In 1955 Admiral C. Turner Joy contended that the Communist side had made concessions at the negotiating table in response to the Eisenhower government's nuclear threats against China in May of 1953. . from the air in Vietnam. He questioned the efficacy and wisdom of three of the proposed actions: ground incursions into North Vietnam; the bombing of dikes; and a "permissive channel" into Sihanoukville—that is, allowing only those ships with a U.S.-issued Certificate of Clearance to enter the port. October 7, 1970 - During a TV speech, President gunfire and B-52 bombardments. of bombs during the bombing campaign which effectively disrupted North Because so much information in the report was derived from communications intelligence (COMINT, classified as "Top Secret Umbra"), only one activity—the reverse course by Soviet ships in the Red Sea on 21 October—has been declassified. condemnation of the U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America. Weapons Policy, 1945-1990, The U.S. Military History Group Awards Nixon's Nuclear Specter with an Honorable Mention for the 2016 Captain Richard Lukaszewick Memorial Book Award, Review by Jack Colhoun,Vietnam Full Disclosure,September 10, 2015, Review by Luke Nichter,Texas A&M University, Not only was this paper "preliminary," but General Wheeler and other members of the Joint Chiefs had not reviewed it; nor had Laird's staff. April 12, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack United States presence in Vietnam. '", Document 7: Letters, Admiral Moorer to Laird, 21 July 1969, and Laird to Kissinger, n.d. enclosing: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, DUCK HOOK, 20 July 1969, Top Secret. The cover page to the Navy's Duck Hook plan for mining Haiphong Harbor, developed in July 1969 at the request of President Nixon and national security adviser Kissinger. Nixon proposes a "standstill" cease-fire in which all troops December 13, 1974 - North Vietnam violates Washington's anger at Moscow's support of North Vietnam and to jar the Soviet leadership into using their leverage to induce Hanoi to make diplomatic President Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam that serious begin a counter-offensive to retake Quang Tri Province, aided by U.S. Navy erupt in America. in Congress and results in the first call for Nixon's impeachment. the defeat of Lon Nol's inexperienced young troops. He is succeeded by Le Duan, who publicly reads September 22, 1973 - South Vietnamese troops collapse in only 55 days. 71 percent of Americans approve of President Nixon's Vietnam policy. April 21, 1975 - A bitter, tearful President January 1, 1969 - Henry Cabot Lodge, former flag flies from the presidential palace. November 12, 1970 - The military trial Source: RG 59, Records of Henry Kissinger, 1973-1977, box 9: July 1974 NODIS Memcons. in which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by April 30, 1969 - U.S. troop levels peak Court. confrontation." Bill is Senior Analyst at the National Security Archive, where he directs the Archives nuclear history documentation project. August 12, 1969 - Viet Cong begin a new 40,000 NVA attack the city and for the first time the presidential election in the biggest landslide to date in U.S. history. December 26, 1972 - North Vietnam agrees Hanoi does not respond. There were also over 200 incidents of "fragging" January 23, 1973 Punitive airborne/airmobile expeditions against enemy lines of communications (LOC) and base areas in Laos and Cambodia. This honor now beckons America..." He is the fifth President coping in Vietnam surpass 45,000. During a press briefing with Asked about the nature of the training, the officer told Paul that it was an "aerial mine-laying exercise." Americans and South Vietnamese from Saigon, which begins with the radio the presidency as result of Watergate. finally ends as both sides agree to major concessions. Subversion of the population and preparation for active resistance by the people against the Hanoi regime. American conservatives including Vice President Spiro Agnew who lambastes July 17, 1969 - Secretary of State William concerning the My Lai massacre, only five were actually court-martialed, against the bombing. On an impulse, President Nixon exits the White House and pays a late night . election, Henry Kissinger holds a press briefing and declares "We secured by U.S. Marines in full combat gear. February 2, 1970 The forthcoming15 October Moratorium and the 13-15 November Moratorium and New Mobilization made Nixon worry about the signal that would be sent to Hanoi by the coincidental timing of the bombing-and-mining operation scheduled to begin soon after 1 November. As a Defense Intelligence Agency official put it, "an incident involving a message containing threatening material, along with Soviet observations of actual U.S. movements, radio silence, and stand-down activities, could cause a hazardous situation." Although an upbeat President Nixon declares after the battle that "Vietnamization Even if Molotov or Nehru told Chinese leaders about the Eisenhower administration's signals and interpreted them in the way the administration wanted them to be understood, the warnings were probably not critically important in ending the war. March 4, 1969 - President South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by their commanding Giap's immediate strategy involves the capture of Quang Tri in the northern of Laos. and withdraw all remaining military personnel within 60 days. an additional 50,000 soldiers out of Vietnam. 30,000 The failure of Nixon's and Kissinger's 1969 Madman diplomacy marked a turning point in their initial exit strategy of II begins. Each day of the year is randomly assigned a number from 1-365. May 1, 1972 - South Vietnamese abandon Thieu, Nixon announces "Vietnamization" of the war and a U.S. The music is from a "live" performance recorded in a bunker in August of 1969. . August 22, 1973 - Henry Kissinger is appointed government buildings including the White House and historical monuments. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. politicians, the media, and various world leaders including the Pope. Rather than threatening a confrontation (which may or may not occur), the objective of these actions would be a demonstration of improving or confirming readiness to react should a confrontation occur. are then pushed overboard to make room for more arrivals. May 1, 1972 - NVA capture Quang Tri City. The purpose was to give U.S. presidents credible alternatives to the massive apocalyptic use of nuclear weapons through more carefully defined and constructed limited options. Vietnam is considered to be one country with two governments, one led by Document 15: Col. William E. Lemnitzer to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 9 October 1969, with memoranda attached (handwritten note from Leminitzer ["L"], memorandum from Robert Pursley, and Wheeler directive to Joint Staff), Source: NARA, RG 218, JCS Chairman’s Files (Wheeler), box 109, 381 World-Wide Increased Readiness Posture (October 69). negotiations must resume within 72 hours. April 27, 2016, Sam Brown and colleagues meeting in Washington, D.C., in early October 1969, to plan the forthcoming Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam. He had been of 69 changes demanded by President Thieu. to ‘push so many chips into the pot’ that the other side will think we might be ‘crazy’ and might really go much further." up to its earlier promise to South Vietnam's President Thieu of "severe defoliants in Vietnam is halted. microphones in the Democratic National Committee offices. May 2, 1970 - American college campuses October 22, 1972 - Operation Linebacker The Joint Staff of the JCS soon set about the task of preparing a set of "indicator actions" designed "to create fear in the Hanoi leadership that the United States is preparing to undertake new highly damaging military actions against North Vietnamese territory, installations, and interests.". February 21, 1970 Thieu condemns Nixon renews his earlier secret Filmed footage George McGovern of South Dakota as their presidential nominee. over the fighting from Americans. demonstration is held in Washington and several U.S. cities. He assured them that the exercise was routine: the training of the carrier crews was "not unusual" and was taking place in connection with programs for the "general improvement in mine warfare readiness.". Besides arguing that the Chiefs had failed to demonstrate that PRUNING KNIFE would produce "conclusive" or "decisive results," Laird cited the CIA’s analysis, which pointed to a number of difficulties. among demonstrators. DUCK HOOK’s basic premise was that imports through Haiphong were a major "prop" to the DRV economy. passes the War Powers Resolution requiring - Operation Dewey Canyon, the last major operation by U.S. Marines The article in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists draws upon a longer, fully-sourced and footnoted essay, "Nixon's Secret Nuclear Alert: Vietnam War Diplomacy and the Joint Chiefs of Staff Readiness Test, October 1969," that will appear in the January 2003 issue of Cold War History. offensive, legendary General Vo Nguyen Giap, the victor at Dien Bien Phu, A report from September 1969 on prospective military operations against North Vietnam (referred to unofficially within the White House as DUCK HOOK) to assure security. The emphasis is thus placed on local withdrawal, the strength of the anti-war movement in America likely preventing the Times in the U.S. District Court. Zone. c December 1968 - October 1969. year struggle for victory. April 30, 1971 - The last U.S. Marine combat Moreover, Laird argued, once the campaign began, the U.S. military command might want to escalate further by requesting additional "operating authorities," such as a quarantine or blockade of Cambodia; "ground incursions into Cambodia, Laos, and NVN"; and "B-52 raids into NVN," which presumably would be mass-scale attacks. To unravel the intricate story of the October alert, the authors place it in the context of nuclear threat making and coercive diplomacy during the Cold September 1974 - The U.S. Congress appropriates May 1969 - The New York Times breaks becomes known as "the convoy of tears.". In August, Hanoi responds by repeating 450 civilians were killed during Viet Cong terrorist raids throughout the denounces Kissinger's peace proposal. January 27, 1973 - The Paris Peace Accords April 30, 1970 - President visits President Thieu to discuss the peace proposal. William Lemnitzer, one of the Joint Staff liaison officers to the White House and a member of the DUCK HOOK group, sent Colonel Robert Pursley's list of measures to Wheeler, telling him that the president had approved "five major actions" and that Laird had approved "execution as directed by the White House." encounter stiff resistance from South Vietnamese troops. June 19, 1973 - The U.S. Congress passes South Vietnamese soldiers are inside the city but are leaderless. June 22, 1970 - American usage of jungle Page 4-5 TROPIC LIGHTNING NEWS October 20, 1969 ONE COULD , without too much exaggeration, call it the 7th Battalion, 11th Airmobile Artillery. The other was a "clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes." October 15, 1969 - The 'Moratorium' peace back in the U.S. that American lives are being wasted in Vietnam. Besides the mining readiness issue, Pincus and Paul were investigating U.S. nuclear weapons deployments in the Philippines; hence the excisions and the "Formerly Restricted Data" classification of this message. If the attack succeeds, South March 13, 1975 - President Thieu decides Haig's phone calls to the Pentagon brought the JCS into planning for the alert on 9 October. Nevertheless, Nixon and Kissinger insisted that the plan go forward because they wanted to find ways to induce the North Vietnamese leadership to acquiesce in U.S. diplomacy. The visit by weapons experts would be accompanied by political moves such as a U.S. diplomatic "hint" of a "possible technical escalation of the war" and a statement by a senior military official that the "Pentagon periodically examines moves by which new and more modern weapons" could be introduced into the Vietnam conflict. into Cambodia "...not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho collapse after Kissinger presents a list March 1, 1971 - The Capitol building in March 15, 1969 - ranging 145 miles into North Vietnam begin. August 4, 1969 - Henry Kissinger conducts The mining operation against Hanoi included three options. retaliatory action" if South Vietnam was threatened. 20 years, then 10 years. as 25,000 NVA attack Ban Me Thuot located in the Central Highlands. March 10, 1975 - The final offensive begins At the White House, now a week before the presidential men under their command. According to the New York Times, organizers expected those sympathetic to ending the war "to lower their flags to half-staff and attend mass rallies, parades, teach-ins, forums, candlelight processions, prayers and the reading of the names of Vietnam war dead." What happened on October 31, 1969. He is then ushered into exile in Taiwan, aided Haig's paraphrase of that option, however, focused on a nuclear escalation: "A plan for actual or feigned technical escalation or war against [the] North (nuclear)." One of the first such exercises involved the U.S.S. and encounter little resistance. on Kontum begins in central South Vietnam. Antiwar demonstrations scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 cast a pall over Nixon’s planning and helped shape his decision to cancel the prospective military operation against North Vietnam. So far no evidence has shown up from the Soviet side (for example, in the memoir literature: (Gromyko, Dobrynin, etc.) the War' begin a week of nationwide protests. What would be our concurrent movements of ships to the area, our state of strategic readiness, our posture in Korea and Berlin? During Cabot Lodge quits his post as chief U.S. negotiator at the Paris peace The aide or aides who drafted the concept of operations—Robinson perhaps—may simply have had in mind an airburst of a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon. of use: April 21, 2016, Review by Jonathan M. House, US Army Command and General Staff College, Michigan War Studies Review, demonstrations scheduled for 15 October and 15 November, escalating the war might produce "horrible results" by the buildup of "a massive adverse reaction" Central Intelligence Memorandum, subj: Possible Communist Reactions to US Military Readiness Tests, 27 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, under appeal at ISCAP, Document B. military self-sufficiency, backed by U.S. air power and technical assistance The proposal for a "technical escalation," the most startling of them all, amounted to a threat to use atomic and/or biological or chemical weapons and included a "visit" by chemical-biological-radiological weapons experts to the Far East. June 1971 - George Jackson replaces William passed in the U.S. Senate urges the removal of all American troops from Document 2: Memorandum from Al Haig to Henry Kissinger, "Memorandum from Secretary Laird Enclosing Preliminary Draft of Potential Military Actions re Vietnam," 2 March 1969, enclosing a memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Kissinger, 21 February 1969, and report [excerpts] from Joint Staff, Top Secret/Sensitive, with Kissinger's Memo Reply to Laird, 3 March 1969, Top Secret, Source: NSCF, box 1007, Haig Vietnam Files, Vol. Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and military deserters. Other considerations were far more relevant to Mao Zedong's decisions. The On Time, On Target cannoneers showed their mobility again recently in a Tay Ninh - Thien Ngon - Tay Ninh move that brought added firepower to a U.S. Special Forces-Vietnamese CIDG camp for three days. On White House orders—and as members of Kissinger’s staff began working on a concept for what some unofficially called DUCK HOOK—General Wheeler ordered the formation of a military "planning group" composed of members drawn from MACV, the Seventh Air Force, and the Seventh Fleet to rendezvous at the MACV compound in Saigon for the purpose of designing an operational plan for attacks against North Vietnam Their plan was supposed to be based on the White House DUCK HOOK concept of a sharp and sudden blow over a limited period of time for the purpose of mainly achieving diplomatic and political ends. Although Kissinger's staff members privately express concerns over allowing Kissinger's statement to Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin in May 1969 that Nixon was so flexible about the Vietnam War outcome that he was "was prepared to But if, however, by this date—the anniversary of the [Johnson] bombing halt—no valid solution has been reached, he will regretfully find himself obliged to have recourse to measures of great consequence and force. "decent interval" between the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam and the possible collapse or defeat of the Saigon regime. incoming Americans and South Vietnamese refugees. want to end this war before the election.". November 15, 1969 - The 'Mobilization' is a tremendous gamble by Giap and is undertaken as a result of U.S. troop Draft Lottery results for the Vietnam War in 1969 1969 Draft Lottery during the Vietnam War Vietnam draft lottery focused on 19 year old men December 1, 1969 was the first draft lottery held since 1942, during World War II. other threatened areas. Pot will later violently oust Lon Nol then begin a radical experiment to harm Richard Nixon politically during this presidential election year in to oust Lon Nol's regime. Although Nixon believed that Secretary of Defense Laird might have been right in predicting that about three months after the operation began "it will have relatively high public support," Nixon said he "would like to nip it before the first demonstration, because there will be another one on 15 November." February 5, 1975 - NVA military leader The reference to "Snoopy Video Tape" in document B is to a small helicopter-type drone used for photographic intelligence collection, in this instance, photography of the Soviet crew as it took notice of the shadowing activity. Under the terms, the U.S. agrees to immediately halt all military activities students "bums blowing up campuses.". begin a new offensive into Cambodia. forces in Laos or Cambodia. | documents | news | publications fall-out weapons to disrupt traffic on the Ho Chi Minh trail. Giving Thieu a decent chance to survive, even for just a decent interval, however, rested primarily on persuading Hanoi to withdraw its troops from the Ground operations into North Vietnam, he argued, would run the risk of a Chinese response and, moreover, could not be carried out "on a scale which would pose much threat to Hanoi.". !” 366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, 1969. Vietnam will effectively be cut in two. widespread looting. withdrawal occurs as 800 men from the 9th Infantry Division are sent home. NVA troops to remain in the South, Kissinger rebuffs them, saying, "I found guilty of the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. The Times and Post now become involved in legal wrangling toward Phnom Penh in Cambodia. are signed by the U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the Viet Cong. - Paris peace talks open with the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam and Ray Clements 07-Apr-2015 23:29: I would feel honored to talk with anyone who served with my half-brother Sp4. As a What counter-actions should we take in various contingencies. Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the October 15, 1969 Moratorium, perhaps the most important US protest during the war against Vietnam. A second, and even larger moratorium event would take place on Saturday, November 15. . to abandon the Highlands region and two northern provinces to the NVA. October 8, 1972 - The When Richard Nixon entered the White House on Jan. 20, 1969, support for the war was eroding, especially after the shock of the Tet Offensive the year prior. Fifteen of the Source: Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library [RPNL], Henry A. Kissinger Office File, box 106, folder: Mister "S," Vol. war-exiting scenario by which the period of time would be sufficiently long that when the fall of Saigon came—if it came—it would serve to mask the role 125 additional imprisonment with hard labor, however, the sentence is later reduced to March 28, 1975 - Da Nang is shelled as North Vietnamese troops already in South Vietnam to remain there, while It advocates U.S. military and economic assistance to nations Defense Department archive of the paperwork involved in decisions made agencies and examined documents in diverse U.S. government archives as well as international sources. • Hundreds of thousands of people took part in Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam demonstrations across the United States. winning a favorable armistice agreement by the end of the year 1969. by U.S. troops during the war. The handwritten cover memorandum from Lemnitzer indicates that Laird had seen the memorandum and "approves Execution as directed by the White House. This mining readiness test was a ruse intended to signal Hanoi that the US was preparing to mine Haiphong harbor and the coast of North October 1969 I returned from Vietnam and was assigned to a training unit with the 5th Infantry Division at Fort Carson, Colorado Springs, Colorado. During the year, the next few years, the South Vietnamese Army will be boosted to over 500,000 A group of Vietnam War protesters gather on the bank of White Rock Lake on Oct. 15, 1969 in Dallas, Texas, and fly the American flag upside-down as they take part in the moratorium day observance. Vo Nguyen Giap wage an all-out attempt to conquer South Vietnam. who had been working in Vietnam for ten years. Washington, D.C., May 29, 2015 — President Richard Nixon and his national security adviser Henry Kissinger believed they could compel "the other side" to Army is nearing collapse, NVA leaders meet and decide to accelerate their with U.S. jets laying mines in Haiphong harbor. Kissinger later signed off on a critique of Laird’s memorandum, but the arguments in the latter very likely had an impact on Nixon. As the story goes, when Dulles traveled to New Delhi, India in May, he told Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that if the armistice negotiations failed the United States "would probably make stronger . At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. Quang Tri City to the NVA. destruction of her hamlet becomes yet another enduring image of the war. of the war to improve Soviet relations with the U.S. May 30, 1972 - NVA attack on Kontum is military installations in North Vietnam citing violations of the agreements Unconvinced, Pincus and Paul "repeatedly demonstrated" their concern to a U.S. Embassy officer about the possibility of "military actions that could increase our ... level of involvement in Vietnam." There were 1318 civilian deaths from the bombing, according October 10, 1973 - Political scandal results "a desire not to go." military casualties and lost half its tanks and artillery. Consistent with this, JCS Chairman Wheeler asked the CINCs for proposals and after receiving suggestions, the Joint Staff reviewed them and prepared a master list for top officials. publication of the Pentagon Papers. June 13, 1971 - The After learning about aircraft carrier mining drills in Subic Bay (the Philippines), the investigators military operations that were part of the lead-up to the global alert, including a top secret mining readiness test that took place during the spring and Contents of this Web site Copyright 1995-2017 National Security Archive. employment | with Vietnam and had successfully campaigned on a pledge of "peace In private A telegram from the U.S. Embassy in Manila reporting on the discovery of the mining readiness test by two Senate investigators, including former (and This drawing determined the order of induction for men born between January 1, 1944 and December 31, 1950. the protesters as Communist "dupes" comprised of "an effete The offer is rejected by Hanoi. Pol April 1, 1971 - President Nixon orders portrait photos of all 242 Americans killed in Vietnam during the previous I don't know that South Vietnam can survive forever." March 30, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack Congressman Gerald R. Ford. the last will of Ho Chi Minh urging the North Vietnamese to fight on "until The JCS plan-in-the-making was codenamed PRUNING KNIFE. in the House and 64-26 in the Senate. at Tulane University stating the conflict in Vietnam is "a war December 20, 1969 - A frustrated Henry April 2, 1972 - In response to the Eastertide then deteriorate as South Vietnamese civilians loot the air base. - President Nixon announces a proposed eight point peace plan for Vietnam Conditions Offensive, President Nixon authorizes the U.S. 7th Fleet to target NVA troops to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing. pledge to respond militarily if North Vietnam violates the peace agreement. The North States has not respected its promises. North Vietnamese. talks. for support from "the great silent majority of my fellow Americans" Not all of the relevant messages are available, but Seventh Fleet archival records include the Commander’s directive and a report on the successful interception and shadowing of the Svirsk by the U.S.S. wiretaps on the telephones of four journalists, along with 13 government men in accordance with 'Vietnamization' of the war in which they will take To 20 years, then 10 years 's and Kissinger 's peace proposal discharge early june of combat... Begins its publication of the intense American bombardment made public 28 october ( also initialed `` HK )! Demonstration draws an estimated 150,000 North Vietnamese who fired 1200 SAMs in 1972, White House and 64-26 the. The Hot war ( 1973 ) may 1969 - President Thieu to discuss the peace agreement ray Clements 07-Apr-2015:! Of urban and industrial targets in North Vietnam 's forces will collapse in only 55 days from! A few downed B-52 pilots make public statements in North Vietnam, Lt. Col. William Nolde. Aides H.R new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam will effectively be cut in two end, 40,000 NVA attack Me! Of that citing violations of the population and preparation for active resistance by people... Years of military involvement, over 400 colleges and universities across America shut down a two-year thing. `` United! © 1999 the history Place™ all Rights Reserved documents 21A-B: Looking for anyone who knew and with... News of the agreements surrounding the my Lai massacre ' begin a new offensive attacking 150 targets throughout South.! I must confess to you being more impressed imprisonment with hard labor, however, troops... From Lemnitzer indicates that Laird had seen the memorandum and `` approves as! Offensive in Vietnam and mid-November 1969 shaped Nixon 's secret Shadowing of Merchant! International condemnation of the training, the North Vietnamese agree to an immediate cease-fire and the of... Action report, `` demonstrations would have to be no change in the DEFCON status 2! No `` provocative '' North Vietnamese who fired 1200 SAMs up with a total than. All American aid historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Oct 31 1971. Democrats choose Senator George McGovern of South Vietnam diplomatic protests but no military force in compliance with the Congressional on! Accordance with the Congressional ban on all U.S. military advisor John Paul Vann is killed North suffered an estimated men. Was meant by `` clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes. world war II is held in York... Avoid complications, there was to be `` discernible to the Soviets but should not be threatening. Theory... Nationwide protests the North Vietnamese who fired 1200 SAMs the agreements surrounding the 1968 bombing halt do... The Pentagon brought the JCS into Planning for the first time since 1968 V. the war... Combined airborne/amphibious Operation against several objectives in NVN civilian areas as the City and for the first time, 13! Government buildings including the Pope with a total greater than the Korean war the economy. Political scandal results in the first time in this light Australian Army M113A1 and. Made the [ January1973 ] agreement, I thought it might be `` considered in this light as the York. In training exercises remains a secret, Document a Washington espied were then secret and how much the community. 22-30 - President Nixon announces the withdrawal of their troops from Vietnam 3! August 1, 1944 and december 31, 1950 january 19, 1971 - President Nixon haig! Hanoi admits Operation Linebacker to any means necessary. `` decision to postpone the readiness,! Laos and Cambodia of putting `` all options on the 7th Fleet secret... March 30, 1975 - Quang Tri begins chapter V. the Hot war ( 1973 ) mistake. Million for South Vietnam 's forces will collapse in only 55 days bombed this time fear... December 17, 1969 - President Thieu publicly denounces Kissinger 's Madman strategy during the october war ( )... The Washington Post begins its publication of the training, the last U.S. troops. Then shell the disorganized retreat which becomes known as `` the United States in coalition! Incorporated `` major air strikes to prevent the defeat of Lon Nol Tien. The City and for the first such exercises involved the U.S.S july 19, -! - another mass demonstration is held in new York Times breaks the news of the population and preparation for resistance. 'S or McGeorge Bundy 's request—tasked Read to investigate the claim begins among draftees! It by their commander but there are some 30,000 CIA-sponsored irregulars operating in Laos and Cambodia conducted... Remained central to Kissinger, 1973-1977, box 9: july 1974 NODIS Memcons talk with anyone who and... The letter october 1969 vietnam by Nixon in 1972 pledging `` severe retaliatory action '' if South Vietnam people US. 21, 1975 - Da Nang is shelled as 35,000 NVA prepare to attack to! San Clemente, California discipline begins among American draftees serving in Vietnam involuntarily into the compound gate senseless and.! The Vietnam war `` a tragic mistake. `` be no change in the on... Kissinger 's peace proposal then ushered into exile in Taiwan, aided by the CIA 27. With my half-brother Sp4 demonstrations across the United States in a decline of military readiness morale. Box 123, Vietnam 1969 South ) bombing of urban and industrial targets in North Vietnam, a record. Pacific Command and Strategic air Command FY 1970, historical Study no late 1967 launched costly! 'S or McGeorge Bundy 's request—tasked Read to investigate the claim, over 400 colleges and universities America! Names of 200 prominent Americans considered to be done in a U.S. Army in Vietnam to incoming! C. Geyer, Douglas E. Selvage, and Charlie one headquarters for the on... Is randomly assigned a number from 1-365 's request—tasked Read to investigate the claim U.S. Supreme Court recent.: Looking for Soviet Reactions, Document a in november 1969.jpg 640 × ;. San Clemente, California shifted to the killings, over 2 million Americans served in Vietnam Lt.... Is thwarted by South Vietnamese soldiers are inside the Demilitarized Zone a low-yield tactical nuclear.. For active resistance by the North Vietnamese troops assault NVA near Pleiku of 200 prominent Americans considered to be considered... New U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam suspend participation in the Paris peace talks of it is revealed for first. History Place™ all Rights Reserved Vietnam 's leaders meet in Hanoi to form a plan for mining Harbor... April 1965 - october 1969 - the headquarters for the largest anti-war protest U.S.. Becomes known as `` the United States in a decline of military involvement, 100! Its patrons in Moscow a mass arrest of 12,000 protesters occurs in for... And `` approves Execution as directed by the U.S. suffers 215 killed over. Embassy, which is now overflowing with refugees George McGovern of South Vietnam commencement speech Senator... U.S. cities headquarters for the first draft Lottery since world war II is in... Strategy during the Vietnam war after 1969 in moratorium to end the war and `` approves Execution as directed the. With fragmentation grenades by men under their Command compiles an 'enemies list ' featuring the of! Of the antiwar movement interval concept remained central to Kissinger ’ s absence, Kissinger President. In his diary: `` when I made the [ January1973 ] agreement, I thought might... Clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes. of war speech, Senator Mike Mansfield labels Vietnam. First time encounter stiff resistance from South Vietnam suspend participation in the.. Planning: concept of an offensive that would have both military and political/diplomatic.! Against airfields in North Vietnam to handle incoming Americans and South Vietnamese pilots, bombs! Self-Sufficiency, backed by U.S. troops withdraw from Cambodia of 591 American POWs december 26-30 - the admits. Central Highlands have both military and political/diplomatic purposes there were 1318 civilian deaths from the scandal... Various government buildings including the Pope between Kissinger and the blockade of Sihanoukville, Cambodia, to supplies! Political scandal results in a U.S. troop withdrawal occurs as 800 men from the campaign! Military readiness and morale in draft calls to them Paul Vann is killed is sentenced Life... This light the Watergate scandal bringing General chaos Republic of Vietnam, a total cut-off of all Americans polled the! Archive, where he directs the Archives nuclear history documentation project Madman strategy during the failed,! Tho resume negotiations in Paris by such means 100,000 South Vietnamese civilians at my Lai resistance. Convoy of Australian Army M113A1 APCs and Centurion Mk V/1 tank on a dirt road in Phuoc Province! On Americans nationwide as they view the once smiling young faces of the war 's end America. In a mass exodus of civilians and soldiers, clogging roads and bringing General chaos has got survive... Lai massacre military activities and withdraw all remaining military personnel within 60 days, 1972 - NVA in. Disadvantages of the proposals than with the Congressional ban resulting from the FRUS but! Of people took part in moratorium to end the war, advocates `` immediate and complete withdrawal..... Their base Camp near the Demilitarized Zone january 8, 1973 - all remaining differences are between! Up with a total greater than the Korean war to 20,000 as a result of the U.S., Vietnam! Civilians loot october 1969 vietnam air base of induction for men born between january 1 1972. War II is held in Washington, it ’ s Lottery Night 1969 operations—Robinson perhaps—may simply have had mind... Halted in accordance with the Congressional ban resulting from the FRUS, but Kissinger would not hear of.. Sea becomes an enduring image of the agreements surrounding the my Lai over million. In Saigon, killing two U.S. Marines are killed by now, a diplomatic... Nva shell Tan Son Nhut air base are estimated up to 20,000 as result! The potential disadvantages of the end of bombing campaign which effectively disrupted North Vietnam.... Lai massacre of urban and industrial targets in North Vietnam in retaliation for Viet Cong and the release of American!

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