Biochemical Defense: Although structural defense mechanisms do prevent the attack of the pathogen, the defense mechanism also includes the chemical substances produced in the plant cells before or after the infection. The biosynthesis of defensive substances in plants can be induced by microbial or herbivoral attack. Hypersensitivity response (hr) The HR is characterized by the rapid death of cells in … Assessing costs. This may condition a plant or plant tissue from susceptible to resistance as per their genetic potential. Chemical defense in plant 1. Due to the huge number of low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by plants and the variety of ways in which they can exert effects, it is a difficult endeavor to study the chemical defenses of plants. 40 List of Chemicals Derived from Plants - Herbal Drugs used in many application from manufacturing to the most significant as medicine - today there must be more than a hundred and twenty chemical derived from plants used for medicine purposes all over the world. Plant defense theory! It has now been established that biochemical defense mechanisms play more important role than the structural defense mechanisms. Many compounds act directly on the herbivore, whereas others act indirectly via the attraction of organisms from other trophic levels that, in turn, protect the plant. 1. Biochemical Defense Mechanism: The biochemical defense mechanism may consist of the presence or absence of a particular chemical substance or group of substances in a host plant which interferes with the growth and multiplication of the pathogen. Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. Feeny P. (1976) Plant Apparency and Chemical Defense. Why plants, by virtue of their ability to photosynthesize, should occupy a unique place in theories of chemical defense allocation is unclear. What are the predictors for the level of defense exhibited?! Under what conditions do plants evolve different kinds of defenses?! It is the last line of host defense in plants. Plants deploy a wide array of secondary metabolites (also known as specialized metabolites or natural products) that facilitate interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment, including the essential role of chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens. Plants have evolved a plethora of different chemical defenses covering nearly all classes of (secondary) metabolites that represent a major barrier to herbivory: Some are constitutive; others are induced after attack. PRE-EXISTING BIOCHEMICAL DEFENCE Plants liberate different chemicals, which interfere with activities of the pathogen and pathogenesis, thereby preventing or reduce infection. Both inducible and constitutive defenses exist. II. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, vol 10. In: Wallace J.W., Mansell R.L. Plant Chemical Defense is Highly Complex. Chemical arms races eventually results in plant families acquiring a complex of defenses that exclude all but a fauna of related taxa of specialist herbivores! Phytoalexens are toxic antimicrobial substances. Induced chemical defense. (eds) Biochemical Interaction Between Plants and Insects. 2. Plants produce secondary compounds as derivatives of primary metabolism; animals do the same. 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